小隐建筑——意象建筑论

意象建筑论——以意赋象,以象见意。诗歌创作+东方哲学思考的建筑创作方法。

The Imagist Theory of Architecture— Endowing Forms with Ideas, Perceiving Ideas through Forms. A mode of architectural creation that marries poetic composition and Eastern philosophy.

 

意象——物象、表象、形象、印象、想象、抽象、通象、意境、心境……

Imagery——Object imageRepresentation imageMental imageImpressed imageImagined imageAbstract imageSynaesthetic imageArtistic conceptionMood

 

物象:客观事物的本原。事物本身自在的状态。

表象:物象的即时形态。事物外在的呈现方式,是事物的一种属性或表现方式。(表象只是事物的一种外在的偶然属性,不一定是事物的本质。它不包含现实世界中不存在的事物。)

形象:表象予人的具体感知。事物表象引起人的思想或感情活动的具体形态、姿态。同一事物可能呈现出多种不同的形象。它包扩人为虚构的不存在的事物(某些事物的直接形象经过人脑的加工后可能形成新的并不存在于真实世界的新形象,例如鬼、神……)

印象:形象在人脑中的深刻记忆留存。一种思维判断的方式,是接触过的客观事物在人的头脑里留下的迹象,是一种事物众多形象中让人记忆深刻的形象。

想象:印象在人脑中关联、重构的发散思维。一种特殊的思维形式,是人对记忆中的表象进行加工改造形成新形象的心理过程。它能突破时间和空间的束缚,有预见未来的作用。

抽象:想象经过概念、分析、推理形成的理性表现。一种反映事物的本质和规律的方法,从众多的事物中抽取出共同的、本质性的特征的思维过程(透过现象,发现本质)。

通象:想象和抽象相结合的综合认知体现。在一定条件下,视觉、听觉、味觉、触觉、嗅觉彼此互通与转化的一种思维模式,是人在使用某一个意象时对与其有着共性、相似性、对称性的其余意象的一种感知。

意境:通象的时空记忆和感知。是心灵时空的存在与运动,是一种能令人感受领悟、意味无穷却又难以明确言传、具体把握的形神情理统一、虚实有无协调的境界。

心境:意境触发而形成的情绪状态。人的内心世界,一种微弱、平静而持久的带有渲染性的情绪状态。对人的言行、情绪、精神、生活状况、人生状态均有影响。

Object image: the source for objective items. Refers to items' objective state of being in and of themselves.

Representation image: the current, changeable form of the object image. The visual representation of objective items, i.e. how the objective items are defined or represented.

Mental image: the specific human perception of an object image via its representation. The specific form and posture of human thought or emotional activity brought about by the representations of objects. It even applies to imagined items that do not objectively exist (When the human brain processes the direct image of an existent item, it may produce new images of nonexistent items, such as ghosts, deities...)

Impressed image: a mental image stored deep in the memory of a human brain. It refers to a way mental judgement happens, an imprint left by objective items on a human brain, and the most impressive one of diverse images of an objective item.

Imagined image: a divergent impressed image formed through associations and reconstruction in the human brain. It refers to a special way mind works, and a mental process that a human brain processes a representation image stored in human memory into a new image. It can go beyond spatiotemporal restrictions and foresee the future.

Abstract image: a rational expression of the imagined image after a process of conception, analysis, and reasoning. It refers to a methodology that can reflect the nature and laws of objective items, and a mental process of abstracting common and defining features from a multitude of objective items (i.e. perceiving the essence through the phenomenon).

Synaesthetic image: a comprehensive cognitive expression of the imagined image and the abstract image. A synaesthetic form of thinking where, under certain conditions, vision, hearing, taste, touch, and smell interconnect and are transformed due to a perception of commonality or symmetry among imagery or with the use of a certain image.

Artistic conception: the spatiotemporal memory and perception of the synaesthetic image. It refers to spatiotemporal existence and movement in the mind, and tends to be captured when novel unity of form and spirit, magic fusion of feeling and rationality and perfect balance between imagination and reality happen. It can evoke a sense of epiphany that will generate countless musings but go beyond description in any specific words.

Mood: the emotional state triggered by artistic conception. It refers to the inner life of a human being, and an emotional state that is subtle, calm, lasting and infectious, which has an impact on human saying and doing, emotion, mind, lifestyle and view of life.

 

意象起源

Origin of imagery

 

意象是物象经过创作者主观心理活动所产生的精神体。意象是思维活动的基本单位,是思维的工具与元件【1】

Imagery is spiritual image generated after mental activities of a creator. It is the basic unit of mental activity and the tool and element of thinking [1].

 

意象理论在中国起源于春秋战国时期。《周易·系辞》说 :“古者包牺氏之王天下也,仰则观象于天,俯则观法于地,观鸟兽之文与地之宜,近取诸身,远取诸物,于是始作八卦,以通神明之德,以类万物之情。”“圣人立象以尽意,设卦以尽情伪,系辞焉以尽其言。变而通之以尽利,鼓之舞之以尽神。”其中就提出了“观物取象”、“立象以尽意”的思想。其中的“象”狭义上来说是卦象,用来描述纷杂万物的物象。后来发展到历史、哲学、艺术等范畴。确切提出“意象”一词的是南北朝时期刘勰在《文心雕龙》关于专论艺术想象和构思的《神思》篇中“然后使玄解之宰,寻声律而定墨,窥意象而运斤”,第一次提出了“意象”,标志着中国传统文化意象理论的真正开端。童庆炳先生在《文艺理论教程》一书中对此作了如下界定:“意象是以表达哲理观念为目的、以象征性或荒诞性为基本特征以达到人类理想境界的表意之象,是一种艺术典型。”

China's imagist theory originated during the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States periods. The Great Treatise II, Book of Changes (Chinese: 周易·系辞; pinyin: Zhou Yi Xi Ci) says: "In ancient times, Bao-xi came to rule all under heaven. Looking up, he contemplated the brilliant forms exhibited in the sky. Looking down, he surveyed the patterns shown on the earth. He contemplated the ornamental appearances of birds and beasts and (different) suitabilities of the soil. Near at hand, in his own person, he found things for consideration, just as at a distance, he found things in general. Upon these observations, he devised the eight trigrams, to fully exhibit the attributes of the spirit-like and intelligent (the secret operations), and to classify the qualities of the myriad things." The Great Treatise I, Book of Changes says: "The sages erected emblems to give full expression to their ideas. They appointed (all) the diagrams to fully reveal the truth and falsehood (of things). They appended explanations to give the full expression of their words.  They changed (various lines) and generalized a method for doing so, to fully exhibit what was advantageous. They (thus) stimulated (the people) as by drums and dances, thereby completely developing the quality of spirit-like." The concepts of "devising the eight trigrams from observations" and "creating one's emblems to best express one's ideas" were proposed.  In a narrow sense, "Xiang" refers to the trigram that describes object images across the multitude of things. Later, "Xiang" began to be used in fields such as history, philosophy, and art. It is found in Liu Xie's work Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons (Chinese: 文心雕龙; pinyin: Wen Xin Diao Long); it was thus during the period of the Northern and Southern dynasties that the word "Yi Xiang (imagery)" was first put forward explicitly. In the chapter Spirit Thought (Chinese: 神思; pinyin: Shen Si) on artistic imagination and conception, Liu Xie says: "It is only then that he commissions the 'mysterious butcher' [who dwells within him] to write in accord with musical patterns; and it is then that he sets the incomparably brilliant 'master wheelwright' [who dwells within him] to wield the ax in harmony with his intuitive insight". The word "Yi Xiang" is suggested here for the first time, marking the proper start of imagist theory in traditional Chinese culture.  Mr. Tong Qingbing defined imagery in A Course on Literary Theories that "Imagery is image loaded with artistic conception with conveying philosophical concepts as the goal and symbolicity or absurdity as basic features. It is a prime example of art."

 

《现代汉语词典》将艺术定义为“艺术是一种表现文化的形式,是用形象来反映现实但比现实更有典型性的社会意识形态,它包括文学、建筑、绘画、雕塑、音乐、舞蹈、戏剧、电影、曲艺、工艺等。”

Art is defined in the Modern Chinese Dictionary as "an expression form of culture in which social ideologies images to reflect a reality that is more typical than the reality itself. It contains literature, architecture, painting, sculpture, music, dance, drama, film, folk art, crafts, etc."

 

文学意象

Literary imagery

 

中国古代意象论是中国古代文论和美学理论的基本范畴,在这个范畴中,“意象”作为一个古老而又新鲜的话题,具有源远流长的历史和深广的文化底蕴。意象作为中国传统文化的重要思想,经历了由历史、哲学、文化概念向文艺理论和美学范畴演变的过程。

Ancient Chinese imagist theory falls under ancient Chinese literature and aesthetics in which "imagery" as a both old and new motif is steeped in history and culture. As an integral part of traditional Chinese culture, imagery has experienced an evolution process from a historical, philosophical and cultural concept to a literary, art and aesthetic one.

 

中国传统美学认为,审美活动是在物理世界之外建构一个意象世界,这个意象世界,就是审美对象【2】。在美学中“意象”的基本特征是情景交融,它不单指客观世界存在的物象、表象,同时也是经过人们内心活动所产生的由浅至深的形象、印象、抽象、通象,最后深刻的化为意境,甚至转为心境。审美活动不只是认识活动,而是体验活动,是人超理性的精神活动。中国美学的核心不是发现形式美的规律或探讨艺术创作的规律,而是注重人生境界【3】。因此,在中国的审美境界中,人与自然、精神与物质处于自由交往之中,这里没有任何外在的限制却能生成自然之态,是理想的人生境界。

Traditional Chinese aesthetics believes that aesthetic activities are to construct a world of imageries beyond the physical world, and the world is right the object of aesthetics[2]. "Imagery" in the field of aesthetics is characterized by fusion of feelings and scenes. It refers to not only object image and representation image in the objective world, but also mental image, impressed image, abstract image and synaesthetic image generated progressively in a human brain through mental activities and artistic conception and even mood in depth transformed therefrom at last. Aesthetic activity, not just about cognition, but also about experience, is human mental activity beyond rationality. What lies at the very core of Chinese aesthetics is not discovering laws governing the beauty of formality or discussing laws governing artistic creation, but highlighting attitudes creators take towards life [3]. In Chinese aesthetics, therefore, man and nature are in free communication like spirit and material. There is no restriction from outside, but a natural state can be generated, which creates the ideal attitude towards life.

 

美学意象的主要类型有:

1、仿象:是主体通过模仿对象世界的形态创造出的意象,它在感性形态、具象上与对象相似,甚至非常逼真,主体有意退居幕后。

2、兴象:主体以客观世界的物象为引导,给接受者提供借以触发情感、启动想像而完成意象世界的契机,物象使感兴得以发生,联想得以展开,在此基础上生成的象便是兴象。

3、喻象:主体在客观世界摄取物象,赋予其一定的象征意义,以此种方式形成的意象便是喻象。

4、抽象:抽象指创造主体经过自己的头脑加工,将客体提炼、升华,舍弃具象而代用一些纯粹的形式符号来唤起读者审美情感的一种意象。

The main types of imageries in aesthetics:

1. Simulated image: the imagery created by a subject by imitating the form of the world of objects. The imagery and the object it imitates are similar or even alike in perceptual and concrete forms, and the subject tends to take a back seat.

2. Affective image: the imagery generated on the basis of an affective and association process inspired by a certain object image on the showcase provided by the subject for receivers to trigger feelings and activate imagination with the object image from the objective world as guidance.

3. Metaphorical image: the imagery created by the subject by selecting a certain object image from the objective world and endowing it with symbolic significance.

4. Abstract image: the imagery that can arouse the readers' aesthetic emotion with certain pure formalist symbols instead of concrete images created by the subject through refining and subliming a certain object image in his/her brain.

 

文学是用语言文字形象化地反映客观现实的艺术,是社会文化的一种重要表现形式,包括诗歌、小说、戏剧等。文学的四大要素为:世界、作者、作品、读者,这里的世界主要是指文学活动所反应的社会生活或社会现实。诗歌是人类文学的源头,是最早出现的一种文学体裁。它源于上古时期的劳动号子(后发展为民歌)以及祭祀颂词。诗歌是远古的社会生活,因劳动生产、两性相恋、原始宗教等而产生的一种有韵律、富有感情色彩的语言形式。以古希腊为代表的西方文化认为诗是一种再现外在事物印象的模仿艺术;而以中国为代表的东方文化认为诗是人情感意识的一种表现形式。

Literature is a type of art that visually reflects the objective reality with languages. As an important expression form of social culture, it includes poetry, novels, and dramas. The four elements of literature are: world, author, work, and reader. The world here mainly refers to the social life or social reality reflected in literary activities. Poetry is the source of human literature and the earliest literary genre. It evolved from work songs (later developed into folk songs) and prayers in ancient times. Poetry is a rhythmic and emotional linguistic form rooted in labor and production, love, primitive religion and other aspects of ancient social life. Western culture represented by the Hellenic culture regards poetry as an imitation art that reproduces the outside world, while Eastern culture represented by the Chinese culture considers poetry as an expression form of human feelings and musings.

 

在中国,诗歌是中国传统美学的大成,是中国古代的主流文学,它以最古老而最具有文学特质的艺术形式,最为集中地体现着中国文化的基本精神。诗歌创作过程是经过观察、感受、酝酿、表达从而再现生活的过程,是物象经过诗人的感情活动而创造出来的独特形象,是一种富于更多主观色彩、迥异于生活原态并能为人所感知的艺术形象【4】。司空图说:“意象欲出,造化已奇”,诗歌的创作离不开意象,意象是诗歌创作的源泉和焦点,是诗歌艺术的灵魂。

In China, poetry is the ultimate in traditional Chinese aesthetics. As a mainstream literary form of ancient China, it embodies the essentials of Chinese culture in the oldest, most artistic form. Poetry creation is a process of reproducing life through observation, feeling, musing, and expression during which unique images will be created by poets from object images through his/her feeling activities. They are artistic images that are more subjective and disparate from the real life and can be perceived by man [4]. Sikong Tu says: "The moment imagery presents itself, making of nature ingeniously happens." Poetry creation cannot be separated from imagery, and imagery is the source and focus of poetry creation and the soul of poetry art.

 

“诗以奇趣为宗,反常合道为趣。” 诗歌呈现的是诗人创造的简洁鲜明、震撼人心且能引发读者共鸣的意象,一首好诗必须有一个完好的意象,它通常分为自然意象和人文意象两大类:

1、自然意象:和大自然有关的意象,主要是指天然存在的一些事物。如:日月星辰、江河湖海、花草树木、飞禽走兽、气候季象等等。(常见如:月、风、烟、霜、落花、流水、斜阳、柳、莲、芭蕉、梅兰竹菊、杜鹃、鸦、雁、猿、蝉、鸳鸯、鹧鸪、……)

2、人文意象:与人的活动相关的意象,主要是指人为创造的各种事物。如:人物、建筑、行为活动等等。(常见如:亭台楼阁、桥、舟、镜、酒、蜡烛、登高、折柳、饮酒、……)

"Being compelling is the ultimate goal of poetry; compellingness tends to be achieved through ostensible challenges to convention over an underlying fidelity to poetics." Poetry is a combination of concise and vivid images created by the poet that are able to shock and resonate with an audience. A good poem must construct a perfect world of imageries which generally can be divided into two categories: natural imagery and cultural imagery.

1.    Natural imagery: the images related to nature which mainly include natural existent items. For example: the sun, the moon and stars, rivers, lakes and seas, flowers and trees, birds and beasts, weathers and seasons. (The commonly seen natural imageries include the moon, wind, smoke, frost, falling flowers, running water, setting sun, willow, lotus, plantain, wintersweet, orchid, bamboo and chrysanthemum, rhododendron, crow, goose, ape, cicada, mandarin duck, partridge, . . .)

2.    Cultural imagery: the images related to human activities which mainly include artificial creations. For example: figures, buildings, and behaviors. (The commonly seen cultural imageries include pavilions, terraces and towers, bridges, boats, mirrors, wine, candles, ascending a height, picking up willow branches, drinking, . . .)

 

诗歌借助这些意象,形成囊括叙事、抒情、送别、边塞、山水田园、怀古、咏物、悼亡、讽喻等等的内容表达【5】

Based on these imageries, all genres of poems on a variety of themes are created. Some are narrative and some lyric. Some are about farewell, frontiers and landscapes, and some nostalgia, chanting, mourning and allegory [5].

 

建筑意象

Architectural imagery

 

建筑起源于原始人类为了避风雨防野兽而建造的遮蔽物,而后根据人类活动及社会形态的变化,在功能需求的基础上,逐渐发展为一种具有象征性的视觉艺术,充分体现了功用和审美、技术与艺术的有机结合。

Architecture developed from shelters built by primitive people to avoid wind, rain and beasts, and into a visual art with symbolic significance that adapts to changing human activities and social forms and meets functional needs. Therefore, it demonstrates the perfect combination of functionality and aesthetics and technology and art.

古罗马建筑师维特鲁威在《建筑十书》中最早提出“实用、坚固、美观”的建筑理念,后来发展为建筑构成三要素:建筑功能、建筑技术和建筑艺术形象。

Vitruvius, an ancient Roman architect, first put forward the concepts of making buildings "practical, sturdy and beautiful" in the Ten Books on Architecture, from which the three elements of the architectural composition are derived: architectural function, architectural technology and architectural artistic art.

 

建筑功能是建筑的第一基本要素,指建筑的实用性。建筑功能是建筑的使用需求,它体现了建筑的目的性,任何建筑都有为人所用的功能。建筑功能的需求随着社会形态、物质文化的发展而发展,不同时期、不同地域、不同人群对建筑的具体目的和使用需求不尽相同,便产生了不同类型的建筑。

Architectural function, the first fundamental element of architecture, refers to the functionality. It reflects the needs of building occupants or the purposes of buildings. Each building serves a certain function. Architectural function develops with changing social forms and flourishing material culture, so it varies from time to time, from region to region and from stratum of society to stratum of society. As a result, different types of buildings are designed.

建筑技术是实现建筑的手段,它包括建筑材料、结构设计、建筑设备与施工技术等,是建筑安全、坚固、耐久的保障。它随着社会生产水平和科学技术水平的提高而提高,建筑技术的不断革新为建筑带来了更多的可能性。

Architectural technology is the means to make construction possible. It includes construction materials, structural design, construction equipment and construction techniques, providing a guarantee of safety, solidity and durability. It has been improving and innovating as productivity and science and technology advance, bringing more possibilities for construction.

建筑艺术形象是指建筑物的内外观感的具体体现,它包括建筑体形、空间组合、立面构图、材料质感及色彩、细部处理、光影应用等。由于时代、民族、地域、文化不同,人们对建筑形象的理解各有不同。建筑艺术形象是建筑功能、建筑技术、艺术审美的综合表现。优秀的建筑设计,其建筑艺术形象应该具备反映地域和时代的生产水平、文化传统及社会精神面貌的特征。

Architectural artistic image refers to the specific expression of what a building feels like internally and externally. It includes architectural shape, spatial organization, facade composition, material texture and color, processing of details, and the application of light and shadow. People of different times, nationalities, regions, and cultures have different understandings of architectural images. Architectural artistic image is the comprehensive manifestation of architectural function, architectural technology, and aesthetics. For excellent architectural design, the artistic image should be able to mirror regional and contemporary production level, cultural tradition and social zeitgeist.

 

纵览古今中外,每一座建筑的诞生都有他具体的目的和使用需求,建筑不仅需要满足个人或群体的生活需要,很多时候更要满足整个社会的其他需求。建筑的基本功用是为人提供一定的物质空间环境,而人不能脱离社会孤立存在,建筑与社会的联系也呈现出其复杂性。因为人所具备的独特的思维和精神活动能力,建筑必须考虑它对人精神感受所造成的巨大影响。优秀的建筑应同时满足物质功能和精神感受两方面的需求,从而影响人们的情绪并使之产生共鸣,使其具有一定的艺术感染力,达到一定的艺术创作高度。

Every building, either present or past, at home or abroad, is created with specific purpose and use need. It should not only satisfy the living needs of individuals or groups, but also, in many cases, other needs of the entire society. Providing people with a certain physical space is the basic function of architecture. Given that people cannot live isolated from the society, the connection between architecture and society is complicated. As man possesses the unique ability of thinking and mental activity, the tremendous impact of architecture on human feelings must be taken into consideration. Excellent architecture should meet both physical and the spiritual needs, so as to affect and resonate with people emotionally, make architecture infectious artistically and reach a certain height of artistic creation.

 

每一座建筑因为其所处的时代地域不同、建筑目的不同、建筑技术不同,使其具有不同的建筑特征和建筑艺术形象。时代地域、建筑目的、建筑技术相同的情况下,不同的建筑师选择的建筑意象、建筑意图和建筑思想不同,所创作的建筑作品呈现的建筑艺术形象也千差万别。

Each building has different features and artistic images given its specificity to times and regions, purposes, and technologies. Other things such as times, regions and architectural purposes and technologies being equal, architectural artistic images embodied in architecture works will still differ sharply as different architects would use different architectural imageries, have different architectural purposes and follow different architectural ideas.

 

一切艺术创作都要立意为先,建筑创作与文学诗歌创作有着极高的相似度,一首好诗或一个感人的建筑空间都必须有一个好的意象来源。

All forms of artistic creation must put conception first. Architectural creation shares great similarity with literary and poetry creation, so a touching architectural space, like a good poem, should have a good source of imageries.

 

当今世界正处于全球化发展的大变革之中,无论愿意与否,全球化已经成为人类社会发展的大趋势,国际之间文化、经济、政治等的边界日趋模糊。在全球化的进程中,物质和精神产品的流动共同冲破区域和国界的束缚,影响到地球的每个角落【6】。文化的全球化,是一个逐渐尊重差异的过程,倡导平等交往和对话,在沟通中取得共识,在不同文化中寻找共同之处,达到“和而不同”。但是全球化对于某些本土文化来说也是一把双刃剑,它使得一些弱势本土文化的精神与自我更新能力逐渐模糊和丧失。一个更加全球性的世界必然导致世界文化趋于同质化。

The world today is undergoing major changes with globalization, which has become a main trend in the human society, like it or not. The boundaries in culture, economy, and politics across the world are being blurred. In the process of globalization, the flow of material and cultural products has broken down constraints between regions and national borders, and exerted influence on every corner of the world [6]. Cultural globalization is a process in which respect for differences is gradually realized. It promotes equal exchange and dialogue, builds consensus through communication, finds common ground among different cultures, thereby realizing  "harmony in diversity". However, globalization comes as a double-edged sword for some local cultures, for it may nibble away at some weak local cultures' inner strength and self-renewal ability. As the world becomes more and more globalized, more and more common ground will be found between worldwide civilizations.

 

就建筑领域而言,信息全球化让信息的获取和分享几乎唾手可得,通过信息的分享,人们的世界观,价值观,人生观也随着主流意识的发展而逐渐改变,这种改变使得世界各地气象万千的生活方式日趋同化,使得各地建筑的功能性需求亦大同小异。全球化使世界各地建筑技术的差异越来越小,实现建筑的手段多元却又趋于统一。国际间的差异在不断缩小的同时,许多地域间的差异已几乎丧失。建筑功能和建筑技术的相对统一,导致当下许多建筑呈现出“千城一面”的建筑形象。越来越多的建筑师开始思考和寻求解决这一问题的方法。

In the field of architecture, information is highly accessible and shareable with information globalization. By sharing information, people are undergoing changes in terms of world outlook, view of life and values according to mainstream ideologies. As a result, different lifestyles all over the world tend to be harmonized, hence great similarity in architectural functional needs worldwide. As globalization bridges the differences between worldwide countries in architectural technologies, architectural means has been diversified on the one hand and harmonized on the other hand. Against the backdrop, differences are narrowing all over the world, and even disappearing in some regions. As architectural function and architectural technology become harmonized, architectural images have grown anonymous, and more and more architects are trying to figure out a fix.

 

在全球化的进程中,大多数地区物质匮乏的时代已基本结束,人们的精神需求逐渐超越物质需求而成为社会主要矛盾。科技的发展极大的改善了人类的物质生活环境,也丰富了人类的精神生活,但科技快速发展的同时,却很大程度忽视了人们精神满足的需求,从而诱发了当今世界普遍的精神危机。目前世界主流的建筑理论基本都源于西方建筑阵营,在当下人们精神追求越来越高的时代,这些过于理性的建筑理论已开始显现出其局限性,它很好的解决了人们物质层面的需求,但在精神需求的世界却开始显得力不从心。尤其在中国这个历史文化深厚久远且充满感性思维的国家,这一现象更是愈发明显。

Most regions has seen the end of material deprivation as globalization goes on. Mental needs have become the principal contradiction in the society in place of material needs. Advances in science and technology have greatly improved the physical living environment and enriched the mental life of mankind. Yet as science and technology grow in leaps and bounds, people's spiritual needs have been severely ignored, leaving many people all over the world mentally empty. Most of today's architectural theories in the world are from the West. In the era when mental needs are valued, these excessively rational theories are becoming more and more restrictive as they become increasingly unable to satisfy people's mental needs although they can well meet people's material needs. It's all the more so in China, a country steeped in history and culture and embracing perceptual thinking.

 

前述提及诗歌创作与建筑创作的共通性。诗歌创作是语言、文字的艺术,同样的文字通过诗人情感意象的处理,形成不同的表达方式,可以营造出形象万千的文学意境。诗人创作诗歌的直接意象来自他从童年开始的整个感性生活,间接意象来自他的阅读积累。意象是诗词构成的基本要素,它往往以高度浓缩的艺术形象诱发想象,产生奇特的审美效果。而在古诗词中,许多意象的意义是约定俗成的,它已不是一种单纯的物象,而是有着丰富特殊的文化内涵,成为一种情感的象征,古人便常用这些意象的象征义来表达自己的思想感情。建筑创作在建筑功能和建筑技术几近相同的前提下,由于建筑师不同的立意及建筑思想的引导,亦能创造出完全满足功能需求确又变化万千的建筑艺术形象。对于建筑创作而言,“以意赋象,以象见意”是一个可以循环往复的过程。建筑师根据建筑目的和建筑技术,通过相关的建筑意象进行建筑创作,生成最终的建筑艺术形象,从而表达建筑的象征意义、建筑精神及建筑师的思想;建筑体验者融合自我的情感及想象认知,对这个建筑形象进行二次解读,在建筑师构建的意象之外,又可能形成新的建筑意象,这些原始意象和新兴意象又能成为往后新事物创作的源头……

As mentioned above, poetry creation and architectural creation have a lot in common. Poetry creation is an art of language and writing. By using imageries loaded with feelings, poets can treat the same words in different ways, bringing out artistic conception in its myriad forms. The direct imageries of a poet for poetry creation come from his/her perceptual life since childhood, and the indirect imageries derive from his/her reading. Imagery is the basic element of poetry which tends to use highly condensed artistic images to evoke imagination and produce magical aesthetic effects. But in ancient poems, many imageries have well-established meaning, and are more than object images, but affective symbols pregnant with cultural connotation. Ancient poets often used their symbolic meaning to express their musings and feelings. With the architectural function and the architectural technology basically the same, architects can meet the functional requirements and create various artistic images following different ideas and concepts on architectural creation. In this regard, "endowing forms with ideas and perceiving ideas through forms" is a cyclical process. Architects conduct architectural creation with associated architectural image according to the architectural purpose and architectural technology to generate ultimate architectural artistic images so as to express the symbolic meaning and guiding principle of architecture and the ideas and concepts of architects; architecture experiencers integrate their own emotions, imagination and cognition for the reinterpretation of the architectural image, thus a new architectural image can be formed other than that constructed by the architect. The original image and the new image can serve as the source of future creation . . .

 

东西方的审美观念有非常大的差别。西方人侧重概念、推理、分析的形式思维和逻辑思维,相信美通过一定的分析推论是可解读的,并有一套解释的理论,故而以“数理美”等概念的设计表达,在西方社会是易于接受的【7】。东方人侧重感性、直觉、体验的整体思维和关联思维,东方人的思维里,美是日常中的无形,大多是“只可意会,不可言传”的一种意象。美是回归生活原点的路径,根据每个人对生活的感知不同,美的意象也不同。建筑师的创作过程是以其过往经验和主观意象为出发点,重构其内心意象的过程。现场踏勘、采风、搜集创作资料、构建创作原型都在强化这种意象,但由于创作主体不同,意象选择也有所不同,导向的最终结果也是天差地别。体验者头脑中的建筑形象,与其意识形态紧密相连,它是过往知觉经验和主观记忆在头脑中的重组和再现,这种再现借助建筑师创作的具体建筑形象而受到激发,经过媒介形成群体的意识。

There are tremendous differences in aesthetic concepts between the East and the West. Westerners emphasize the formal and logical thinking based on conception, reasoning, and analysis, and believe that beauty is scrutable with analytical inferences based on a set of theories. Therefore, the "beauty of mathematical sciences" and similar concepts are acceptable in Western society [7]. Easterners focus on holistic and associative thinking based on perception, intuition, and experience. In the Oriental thinking, beauty is invisible throughout daily life and is a type of imagery that "cannot be explained linguistically but can only be perceived insightfully." Beauty is the path through which people can return to the origin of life. As different people approach life differently, beauty is related to different imageries. An architect's creation is based on his/her past experience and subjective imageries to reconstruct his/her inner imageries. Field visit, onsite investigation, collection of materials, and construction of prototypes have strengthened these imageries. But as different creators choose different imageries, the final results will vary sharply. The architectural image in the mind of experiencers is closely related to their ideology. It is the reorganization and reproduction of past perception and memory in the mind. Such reproduction is inspired by the concrete architectural image created by the architect, and contributes to a collective awareness through the media.

 

建筑意象在彰显个性的同时,应结合建筑目的、地域文化、自然科学做理性的选择。许多建筑设计,在设计之初并未做建筑意象的先决考虑,完成设计后,再冠以某种意象之名。这种先有结果强加意象的做法,不仅难以令人信服,而且因为表达上没有统一思想而呈现出纷乱的建筑形象。建筑意象的选择,应尽可能使作品符合其所代表或容纳的功能意象,充分展现其建筑目的。建筑意象最妙处在于“似与不似之间”,如同中国传统绘画中的留白,这种模糊性会将不同经历的人脑海中的潜意识激发出来,经过外界渲染,变成一种群体认识。一个雅俗共赏的建筑意象能引发体验者的感情共鸣并发人深省。

While highlighting individuality, architectural imagery should be selected in a rational manner based on architectural purpose, regional culture and natural science. For many architectural designers, architectural imagery is not forethought, but afterthought. Such a way is not convincing enough, and will cause a meaningless jumble of architectural imageries as there is no unified thought. To choose a proper imagery means that the work should boast the functional imagery it represents or accommodates, and fully demonstrate its architectural purpose. The most fascinating thing about architectural imagery is on the cusp between similarity and dissimilarity, like the blank space in traditional Chinese paintings. Such ambiguity will stimulate the unconscious from people with different experiences, which is processed and turned into the collective awareness. An architectural imagery that suits both refined and popular tastes can arouse sympathy and provoke thoughts from experiencers.

 

意象是人与自然相通的媒介,自然是意象的源泉,是我们寻找智慧的地方,而建筑是二者融合的产物。人的思想源于人对世界万物的认知与解读,亦即意象。人的思想决定了人对自然的态度,从而决定了建筑与自然的关系。中国“天人合一”的东方哲学思想充分体现了人与自然和谐相处的无限向往。

Imagery is the medium through which man and nature communicate. Nature is the source of imagery and wisdom, and architecture combines the two. Human thought comes from human cognition and interpretation of the world, i.e. imagery, and decides human attitudes towards nature and thus the relationship between architecture and nature. The Oriental philosophical thought represented by Chinese philosophy that seeks "harmony between man and nature" fully embodies the aspiration for the harmonic coexistence between man and nature.

 

“小隐建筑”之“隐”即来自“天人合一”的意象,是中国“天人合一”东方哲学思想的抽象表达。在事务所采用意象起源创作建筑的长期实践基础上,结合西方理性建筑理论和东方意象审美,提出“意象建筑论”的诗意建筑创作方法,期能探索出一条解决当下普遍精神危机的道路,施以更久远的建筑实践应用,将“意象建筑论”发展成为一个普遍适用的东方建筑理论。

The word "hermit" in "Archermit" comes from the imagery of "harmony between man and nature" and is the abstract expression of Chinese philosophy of seeking "harmony between man and nature". Based on a proven track record in imagist architectural creation and a sound combination of the Western architectural theories established around reason and the Eastern imagery aesthetics, Archermit proposes the poetic architectural creation method for "imagist architecture". By doing so, Archermit tries to blaze a new trail that can deal with current mental emptiness crisis, sustain architectural practice and application and develop the "imagist theory of architecture" into a universally applicable Eastern architectural theory.

 

意象建筑

Imagist architecture

 

意象建筑——中国“天人合一”东方哲学思想的抽象建筑表现形式,是诗意生活的向往和情景再现,是一个先感性后理性的建筑创作过程。从地域文化、自然科学、建筑目的出发,先行想象整体的建筑意境,抽象确立建筑意象,并将其作为核心建筑精神和建筑思想的载体,再以此统领和指导建筑功能、建筑形态、建筑材料的设计,最后选择合适的建筑技术完成建筑建造,使其满足人、自然、建筑三者之间物质与精神的双重需求。

Imagist architecture is an abstract form of architectural expression rooted in ancient Chinese philosophy that seeks harmony between man and nature. Out of longing for a poetic lifestyle and the reproduction of scenes, it is a process of architectural creation that starts with feeling but ends with rationality. Proceeding from the regional culture, natural sciences, and architectural purposes, imagist architecture will start with advance imagination of overall artistic conception, conduct abstract construction of architectural imageries and use them for the core spirit and thought of architecture, and further as the guidance on the architectural function, architecture form and design of construction materials. Finally, proper technology will be chosen so as to satisfy the material and mental needs of man, nature and architecture.


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